JesenĂ­ky Protected Landscape Area

Fauna

Not only the flora of Jeseníky is influenced by the presence of glacial relict species, but this is also the case with the area’s fauna, with the presence of boreo–montane and Alpine species, which give the fauna of the mountain range its typical character. Species which have survived here since the last Ice Age include insects such as the mountain ringlet (Erebia epiphron), the dung beetle Aphodius limbolarius, the Linyphiid spider Wubanoides uralensis, which lives deep down under rocks on talus slopes. The Sudetan ringlet (Erebia sudetica subsp. sudetica) is regarded as an endemic species to Jeseníky. Other endemic species are the small mountain ringlet (Erebia epiphron subsp. Silesiana), the ingrailed clay moth (Diarsia mendica), the leaf roller (tortricid) Sparganothis rubicundana and the begworm moth Epichnopterix ardua of the Psychidae.

The ground beetle Carabus variolosus subsp. variolosus, a Species of Community Interest, is quite common in the area and the montane dung beetle Aphodius limbolarius is a very significant inhabitant of the area.

The population of tailed amphibians is of great interest. The fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is not common in the area, but we can find 4 species of newt here: Alpine newt (Triturus alpestris), smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris), Carpathian newt (Triturus montandoni) and at one locality, the great–crested newt (Triturus cristatus)

The bird life of the area is represented by such mountain species as the water pipit (Anthus spinoletta), Alpine accentor (Prunella collaris), which occasionally nests here, wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) and ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus). The black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) now occur only sporadically in the forests, but the population of hazen hen (Bonasa bonasia) is much stronger. In recent years the number of nesting pairs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) has increased. The corncrake (Crex crex) nests on sub-montane meadows where the grass is cut later.

Among the area’s mammals, the northern birch mouse (Sicista betulina) is a glacial relict species and along with the Alpine shrew (Sorex alpinus) they inhabit the highest elevations of the mountains. Jeseníky has an exceptional richness and variety of bat hibernating sites. In abandoned mine shafts and other suitable localities we can hope to see greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis), barbastelle bat (Barbastella barbastellus), brown long-eared bat (Plecatus auritis), northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii), Geoffroy’s bat (Myotis emarginatus), lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) and others. During the last decade, the parti-coloured bat (Vespertillo murinus) has become quite common around human settlements, although it is rare in other regions. Since it was introduced in 1913, the non-indigenous chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) has become at home in the area.

The lynx (Lynx lynx), which is the areas largest predator, returned spontaneously to the area in the second half of the  20th century and the population reached 15 individuals in the mid 1980s, but has recently declined rapidly and only a few remain.