Ĺ umava National Park

Geology

The Šumava National Park territory is built of two basic geological units, the Moldanubicum and the Moldanubian pluton. The Moldanubicum describes a complex of medium-to-high grade metamorphosed rocks with predominant paragneisses and migmatites, often with bodies of quartzites and calc-silicate rocks. These areas are included in the Monotonous Series. The Moldanubian pluton is represented in its Šumava NP branch by several larger granitic massifs including the Prášily massif, Vydra massif and Plechý massif. A number of smaller granitic bodies occur in the surrounding areas. These granitic intrusions are generally Variscan or Late Paleozoic and the granite of the Weinsberg type is considered to be the oldest (349 million years) while the granite of the Eisgarn type is younger (316 million years). Granite of the Rastenberg type can also be found along the south-eastern border of the National Park. Dykes are represented by the granite porphyry and the ‘dyke granite’.

The most common Quaternary sediments are the colluvia (slope deposits) generated by solifluction, while peat deposits are also widespread in Šumava. Less common are fluvial and colluvio-fluvial deposits and we can rarely find sediments of glacial origin. In stratigraphic division, they are mostly assigned to the Pleistocene, less commonly to the Holocene to Recent. The composition of the slope deposits is rather variable and ranges from loams through loamy sands, loam stone sediments to block-sized sediments of various thicknesses. Boulder fields are commonly formed at the base of frost-riven cliffs.