Hojná Voda National Nature Monument

The Hojná Voda NNM was designated in 1933, although the territory had already been declared a reserve by the landowners in 1838, along with the nearby Žofínský prales NNR, which makes it the oldest protected area in the Czech Republic. The monument covers an area of 9.09 ha. at elevations of 792 and 885 metres above sea level and can be found on the eastern slopes of Mt. Vysoká (1033.8 m) and close to the village of Hojná Voda, on the northern edge of the Novohradské hory mountains and in the Jihočeský kraj – South Bohemian Region. The subject of the protection is a primeval, montane mixed forest stand with the occurrence of significant bird and insect populations.
 
The geological basement is built of medium-grained porphorytic biotite granite of the Weinberg type. The soil covering is of cambic Podzols and typical dystric Cambisols, with transitions to cambic Rankers on talus areas. Typical Gleysols and organic Gleysols are developed around several forest springs. The territory of the monument is drained by the Stropnice stream. The territory belongs to a mildly cold district of a cold climatic region.The mean annual air temperature is 5-6 degrees Celsius and mean annual precipitation is between 800 and 900 mm.
 
The subject of the protection at Hojná Voda is a primeval mixed montane forest stand, with talus and ravine forest on the steepest slopes. The vegetation consists of mesotrophic herb-rich beechwoods (Asperulo – Fagetum), fragments of talus and ravine forest (Mercuriali perennis – Fagetum sylvaticae) and shaded forest spring growths (Veronico montanae – Caricetum remotae). The tree layer is dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica), with much smaller numbers of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba). Wych elms (Ulmus glabra), Norway maples (Acer platanoides) and sycamores (Acer pseudoplatanus) are represented in the forests on the boulder talus. The shrub layer is almost completely absent, except for beech saplings. The herb layer is of high species diversity and includes the typical beechwood species: nine-leaved toothwort (Dentaria enneaphyllos), coralroot (Dentaria bulbifera), wood fescue (Festuca altissima) and wood millet (Milium effusum), as well as the trefoil bittercress (Cardamine trifolia), which is of phytogeographical significance. A whole range of  significant fern species grow in the primeval forest, including the lady fern (Athyricum filix-femina), male fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), broad buckler fern (D. dilitata), as well as the golden-scaled male fern (D. affinis) and hard shield fern (Polystichum aculeatum). Braun´s holly fern (P. braunii) has recently been recorded here, which makes Hojná Voda its only locality in the whole of south Bohemia. The shaded forest spring area vegetation include a range of sub-montane spring area species, such as Alpine enchanter´s nightshade (Circaea alpina), wood speedwell (Veronica montana), alternate-leaved golden saxifrage (Chrysosplenium alternifolium), and remote sedge (Carex remota). Even though the monument covers a relatively small area, its rugged terrain and suitable microclimate support the occurrence of a wide range of significant mosses and liverworts. The rarest mossses include the epiphytic fork-moss Dicranum viride, the moss Neckera pennata and the epixylic moss Anacamptodon splachnoides, which is rare throughout Europe. The liverwort (greasewort) Aneura maxima has been recorded at a forest spring just outside the monument boundary. This greasewort is only known in the Czech Republic from the Novohradské hory and Šumava mountain ranges.
 
The fauna composition at Hojná Voda reflects the geographical and vegetation conditions in the primeval forest. The beetles which live in the forest include the rove beetles Eusphalerum stramineum and Lordithon speciosus, the ground beetle Pterostichus illigeri and (from past records) - the longhorn beetles Tragosoma depsarium and Arhopalus rusticus. The birds are represented by the stock dove (Columba oenas), spotted flycatcher (Muscicapa striata), collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) and the tawny owl (Strix aluco), which regularly nests in the primeval forests.
 
Hojná Voda NNM, like the nearby Žofínský prales NNR, serves as a study area for many fields of biological study, but unlike the Žofín primeval forest, Hojná Voda NNM is open to the general public along a themed nature trail. The whole territory of the monument is left to natural development processes.