Státní lom National Nature Monument

The Státní lom (State Quarry) NNM was first declared in 1974 and redeclared in 1990 on an area of 0.57ha. The monument covers the western wall of an abandoned limestone quarry around 1.5km north-west of the municipality of Čelechovice na Hané in the Olomoucký kraj Region.
 
The State Quarry lies on the south-eastern slopes of Velký Kosíř hill (442m) and on the border of the Bouzovská vrchovina Hill Country and Prostějovská pahorkatina Hilly Land geomorphological sub-units. The monument lies at elevations of 300-318 metres above sea level. The basement of the quarry is built of shallow-water limestone of Devonian age, which emerges from the Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. In the western wall of the quarry we can find the so-called “red coral layers” of several metres in thickness, which are rich in fossilised representatives of Palaeozoic marine fauna. The Státní lom NNM is of such importance because here the complete geological profile of the Devonian strata sequence are exposed – a total of 146 layers. The soil covering is of typical Cambisol (brown earth). On the edges and floor of the quarry there are only shallow soils (Rendzina) with a weakly developed A-horizon and a considerable representation of clastic material. The protected area lies in a mildly warm (MT11) climatic region.
 
From a botanical standpoint, the district around Velký Kosíř hill is one of the most notable territories in central Moravia, due to the wide geomorphological and geological diversity of the substrate. The territory has high plant species diversity, but is also interesting from a phytogeographical standpoint as the northernmost locality for a range of thermophilous species and communities in Moravia. The margins of the actual quarry are covered with shrubs such as blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), dogwood (Cornus sanguinea), wild privet (Ligustrum vulgare) and various roses (Rosa sp.). Scattered pendunculate oaks (Quercus robur), sessile oaks (Quercus petraea) and ashes (Fraxinus excelsior) and other tree species can also be found in the monument. On the grassy places we can find the vegetation of thermophilous grasslands of the Bromion erecti alliance, with species including erect brome (Bromus erectus), Hungarian brome (Bromus inermis) and spring sedge (Carex caresphyllea). Herbs which grow on these grasslands include squinancywort (Asperula cynanchica), field eryngo (Eryngium campestre), meadow clary (Salvia pratensis), the aster Aster amellus, agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), the bellflower Campanula moravica, broad-leaved everlasting pea (Lathyrus latifolius), the bastard toadflax Thesium dollineri, Seseli osseum of the carrot family and others.
 
The territory of the State Quarry is an important sanctuary for many animal species. The most valuable are the blocked succession stages of a shrub-herb character, to which xerophilous and thermophilous insect communities are bound. During inventory work which was carried out here in 1998 – 2003 a total of 54 butterfly species were documented. On the larger territory of the Velký Kosíř Nature Park up to 36 species of ants have been recorded and documented. The most notable of the 11 mollusc species are the terrestrial gastropods Granaria frumentum and Cepaea vindobonensis, which are classified in the NT – nearly threatened category. The surroundings of the quarry and the south-eastern slope of Velký Kosíř are also an extremely valuable ornithological locality. Inventory research carried out in 2004 recorded a total of 27 bird species, of which 3 nest directly in the quarry. The most notable of the birds are the eagle owls (Bubo bubo), which nest on the north wall of the quarry and the area probably has several nesting pairs of meadow buntings (Miliaria calandra). The Syrian woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus) and the wryneck (Jynx torquilla) can also be observed in the surroundings of the quarry.
 
Státní lom NNM is included in the Natura 2000 network as a part of the proposed Kosíř – Lomy Site of Community Importance.