Týřov National Nature Reserve

Týřov NNR is the most important protected area within the Křivoklátsko PLA and was declared in 1984 on an area of 420.6 ha. Týřov NNR lies in the west of the Středočeský kraj – Central Bohemian Region The reserve includes the deeply-incised Oupořský potok Stream valley which flows through the Křivoklátsko – Rokycany Belt from the village of Broumy to the Berounka river, including rocky outcrops and the surrounding slopes above the Berounka river on both sides the stream’s confluence with the Berounka. The lowest elevation in the reserve is at 248 metres above sea level on the Berounka river and the highest is on the summit of Roudný Hill at 526 metres. This is themost well preserved part of the Křivoklátsko area with a very rich mosaic of forest complexes and forest-free localities with an exceptionally rich flora and fauna, from the cold, damp inversion valley of the stream to F3430 rocky steppe – known as „bald hills“ – on the summit areas. The MedievalTýřov castlegives the reserve its name and the ruin still symbolically protects the entrance to the stream valley from the Berounka river.
 
The relief of the territory belongs to the plateaux of the Vlastecká vrchovina Hill Country, into which the streams have cut a series of deep valleys, with many side ravines, rocky scarps with boulder talus at the foot, gentler loam-covered slopes and summit areas with exposed rocks or shallow soils. The rocky  basement in the north-western part is built of andesites, while the south-eastern section is built of rhyolites, dacites and their tuffs. Sedimentary rocks of the Jinecká Strata, which are of Middle Cambrian age, are exposed in the westernmost tip of the reserve – these consist of conglomerates and sandstones. The soils are mostly mesotrophic stony Cambisols or Rankers on peaks and slopes, with deposited gravelly soils – Fluvisols and Gleysols in the valleys and around the streams.
 
A wide variety of vegetation types can be found in the reserve. Researchers have documented the presence of more than 500 vascular plant species, of which 11 are specially protected. This high species diversity results from Týřov lying on the contact between the flora of the warm lowlands and that of the colder hill country, and is further accentuated by the inversion effect of the deep valley. Small areas of alder carrs with chickweeds (Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae) are represented on the floors of the stream valleys and ravines where submontane species can be found, including the chervil Chaerophyllum hirsutum and wood speedwell (Veronica montana). Hornbeam-maple stands (Aceri-Carpinetum) grow on the steep slopes with a rich tree species composition, including the highly endangered yew (Taxus baccata), of which over 400 individual trees have been recorded in the reserve. In shaded ravines there are strong communities of perennial honesty (Lunaria rediviva). Typical herb layer species includein martagon lily (Lilium martagon), herb paris (Paris quadrifolia) and nine-leaved toothwort (Dentaria enneaphyllos). Oak-hornbeam communities (Melampyro nemorosi-Carpinetum) with typical grove flora species are found on the gentler slopes, forested ridges and peaks. The species composition is not as rich as it would naturally be due to the coppice system of cultivation which was formerly practiced here. Lime-beech communities (Tilio cordatae-Fagetum) have developed in damp localities on boulder-covered slopes, but these stands were modified in the past by artificial renewal and forestry activities. Scattered examples of the once common silver fir (Abies alba) have survived in these stands. Islands of oakwoods with wild service tree (Sorbo torminalis-Quercetum) are scattered across the extreme localities of peaks and rocky slopes with the swallowwort (Vincetoxicum hirundinaria) in the herb layer. Smaller areas are also covered with oakwoods with catchflies (Viscario-Quercetum association) with the hawkweed Hieracium schmidtii, oakwoods with wood-rush (Luzulo albidae-Quercetum) and pinewoods with lichens (Cladonio-Pinetum), which pass into the dry grasslands on the so-called“pleš – bald hills”. On these “bald hills” we can find a mosaic of vegetation communities of shallow skeletal soils, heatlands and narrow-leaved fescue grasslands, which are bordered by thermophilous forest fringes with bloody cranesbill (Geranium sanguineum). Herbs which grow here include St. Bernard’s lily (Anthericum liliago), goldilocks aster (Aster linosyris), the feather-grass (Stipa pennata) and the Bohemian small pasque flower (Pulsatilla pratensis subsp. bohemica). However, n. Abundant growths of basket of gold (Aurinia saxatilis) and the rare fern Woodsia ilvensis. Týřov NNR can boast a very significantmycoflora, which includes many rare fungi species and the very rare earthstar fungus Geastrum coronatum .
 
Týřov NNR can boast a very high animal species diversity. Notable xerothermal communities have developed on the peaks and sunny, south-facing slopes. In contrast to the Oupoř stream valley, the north-facing slopes of Vosník and at the foot of the Týřovická skála Rocks where montane to submontane elements can be found. Spiders which occur on the steppe and forest steppe areas include the thermophyte purse-web spiders Atypus affinis and Atypus piceus, the sheet-web weaver Agroecina striata, the sac spider Haplodrassus cognatus and others. Notable and relict species of phytophagous leaf beetles and weevils also live here. Týřov NNR is one of only two localities in the Czech Republic where the jewel beetle Acmaeodera degener lives (the other is Velká Pleš NNR). The rare scarab beetle Sisyphus schaefferi and the chafer Gnorimus variabilis also live here. In cold positions in the valleys and on the gravel stream banks, we can find the bowl spiders Diplocephalus helleri and Bathyphantes similes. The core distribution of montane beetle species can be found in the damp, deciduous and ravine forests and on the Oupoř stream alluvial plain including the ground beetles (Carabus irregularis, Abax ovalis, Licinus hoffmannsegi), phytophagous leaf beetles (such as Phyllotreta austriaca at its second locality in the Czech Republic), weevils (such as Rhyncolus elongatus which lives on dead fir trees) and representatives of the fungus weevils  (Anthribidae) and many other species which indicate the continuity of these forests, including the weevils Acalles camelus, Rhynchaenus lonicerae and others. Týřov NNM is the only locality in the Czech Republic where the pollen beetle Meligethes buyssoni/M.wankai has been recorded. Our smallest stag beetle Aesalus scarabaeoides alsooccurs here. There are rich populations of many xylophagous insect species, especially longhorn beetles, of which many species are very rare. This is the same with numerous click beetles (the violet click beetle Limonisus violaceus lives here), ground beetles and orders others. Several rare cryophilous rove beetle species have also been found here. Rare gastropods which are found here include the whorl snail Vertigo alpestris, the door snails  Alinda biplicata bohemica and Balea perversa and others. Several rare and relict spider species live in the boulder scree and in the forest steppe, including the sac spider Anyphaena furva which lives on the bark of old oak trees or the sheet-web spider Lepthyphantes notabilis which lives in the boulder scree. The rare cryophilous daddy long-legs Ischyropsalis hellwigi lives on the perennial honesty and damp parts of the Týřov rocks are the home of the harvestman Nemastoma triste. The critically endangered stone crayfish (Austropotamobius torrentium) and the endangered bullhead (Cottus gobio) have strong populations in the Oupořský stream. Strong reptile and amphibian populations occur in the protected area and notable species include the alpine newt (Triturus alpestris) and the smooth snake (Coronella austriaca). The bird populations are also very strong. Dippers (Cinclus cinclus), kingfishers (Alcedo atthis), grey wagtails (Motacilla cinerea) and black storks (Ciconia nigra) all nest and feed around the Oupořský potok Stream. The rare red-breasted flycatcher (Ficedula parva) also nests here. The presence of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) is of ornithological significance. The Raven (Corvux corax) and hobby (Falco subbuteo) are becoming more common in the area. Notable  mammal species which live at Týřov include native species such as the field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius). Unfortunately several non-native mammals also occur here, including mouflon (Ovis musimon) and American mink (Mustela vision).
 
The Oupořský potok Stream valley was used as a trading route in prehistoric and historic periods, which is documented by archaeological finds from the pre-Slovanic period and also by the Týřov Castle which dates from the 13th century. Týřov is one of the most notable examples of castle architecture, even though only the ruins have survived. A mill originally stood below the castle and several farms with agricultural lands stood further upstream in the  valley. Two great floods in the 19th century brought great changes and put an end to the last agricultural usage of the stream valley. Wood was originally cut in the forest predominantly for charcoal making and a number of charcoal kilns can still be found in the side ravines close to springs. Týřov NNR has not been open to the public for many years. Visitors can only access the marked tourist path from Skryje to theTýřov Castle ruins, which winds across the cliffs above the river. The locals call it the “Monkey Trail”, and the name is an appropriate one, as it is not easy walking.